A combination and physical measures (especially bollards), police, and local business owner enforcement is needed. The enforcement of laws is not as formalized and effective as in other cities in Southeast Asia. With that said there is a social customary law, aligned with religion, which is respected by most citizens and keeps things generally in good order.

There is not a clear delineation – geographically or legislatively – between enforcement from the Wat, Ban, District and Mayor’s office regarding many issues in the NMT coverage area. Parking is a relatively new problem in Vientiane. While government lags behind in parking regulations, all parties mentioned above and also local businesses have enacted ‘localized’ solutions; sometimes helpful, sometimes opportunistic.

While odd/even parking regulation exists on many streets with official signage, the enforcement by traffic police with a limited number of wheel clamps and low fees for violation mean illegal parking is rampant. Such lack of enforcement has caused many local businesses to physically block off parking spaces for their customers either physically or with informal signage.

Use of physical measures of enforcement such as bollards have been increasing in the study area.

Perhaps the best example of the effective use of bollards to control parking is seen at the Chao Anouvong Park and the Night Market. While the most effective in Vientiane, motorcycles often are not blocked by the bollards which is a major problem for good quality public space. It should be noted that bollards have been both illegally removed or chains between bollards have been cut in areas where people think they are considered a nuisance. We recommends and has specified a very robust bollard design to combat this vandalism. Informal temporary parking bollards are a common sight in the coverage area. They often block access to parking on the setback and less frequently block public parking spaces in front of shops.

More formally, larger intersections have police presence during daylight hours. The police stationed there may pull over a motorcyclist for not wearing a helmet or stop a person for running a red light. They also often direct traffic manually during peak times, which frequently results in deteriorated intersection performance due to longer manual phases.